About

The purpose of this project concerns the investigation, determination and implementation of a common Enterprise Architecture, which can cover the particular needs of the most (if not of all) the different forms of digital cities.  

According to Ducet et al. (2008) and to Chief Information Officer (2001) the Enterprise Architecture (EA) is an important knowledge base, which describes the strategic mission of an organization, the information and the technologies that are necessary to succeed in the strategic targets, and the migration procedure to handle technological change. In simple words the Enterprise Architecture contains the “blue prints” that describe the principles and the standards for the development of a new service or product. In this context, the EA should not be considered to have information and communications technologies (ICT) as a prerequisite. In almost all cases the EA supports the organization’s stakeholders (managers, ICT staff, marketing etc.) providing them with the standards for the development of new infrastructure and of new services; and for the process re-engineering that is necessary for the development of new products and services, and for the change management, which accompanies the new products and services. The EA was first introduced by Zachman (1987) and it has been –or it is being- followed in almost all significant e-Government cases around the world. Today, EA research concerns coherency, alignment and agility (Doucet et al., 2008) between different projects that are implemented under the same strategic framework (Anthopoulos, 2009). 

On the other hand, various forms of digital cities are being developed around the world since 1990: Web or Virtual Cities such as the America on Line cities (USA) and the digital city of Kyoto (Japan); the Knowledge Based Cities the Copenhagen base and the knowledge democracy of Blacksbourg (Scotland); the Broadband Cities such as Beijing (China), Hull(UK), Amsterdam (Holland) etc.; Digital Democracies and Nework Cities such as Eurocities (Europe) and Smart Communities; Smart Cities such as Malta and Dubai; Wireless Cities such as New York and Chicago; Ubiquitous Cities such as New Songdo και Seoul (South Korea) and Osaka (Japan). An initial approach to the existing forms of digital cities has been performed by Anthopoulos and Fitsilis (2009) (1) and (2009) (2). All of the above different approaches apply different ICT  solutions or they apply the same solutions in different manner in order to achieve their particular targets. However, all various digital cities face common challenges, such as the improvement of everyday life in their local communities, the development of the local market, new job opportunities, access to information and knowledge etc. 

According to (Anthopoulos and Tsoukalas, 2005) the digital city can be defined as an ICT based environment in a city area, which focus on the treatment of local community’s needs. Most digital cities share common challenges such as: a) the availability of digital services that simplify daily life; b) the transformation of the local community to a “local information society”; c) the direct and indirect collection of local information in order to support the sustainable growth of the local community. The physical architecture that was proposed by Anthopoulos and Tsoukalas (2005) is n-tier, it was determined for the requirements of the digital city of Trikala  (Greece) and it has been updated by (Anthopoulos and Fitsilis, 2009 (1)). 

Today, various digital city projects are being evolved worldwide, and in Greece too (e.g. Athens, Trikala, Patras etc.) while networks of digital cities are being structured (e.g. the “Citiesnet ” network  of eleven (11) cities in central Greece). These projects have many similarities and they develop ICT infrastructure and digital services in the city area. All of these projects concern medium-sized to large scale investments (> €5 million), which are complex to complete, and difficult to be maintained and managed. The New Songdo city project alone, has been implemented during the last thirty years, and demanded a budget of $80 billion, but this project concerns not only the digital but the physical city too. Moreover, the ICT projects in Greece lack in standardization (Anthopoulos, Gerogiannis and Fitsilis, 2011) and this particular phenomenon leads to fault project design, management and maintenance. 

According to (Anthopoulos and Fitsilis, 2009 (2)) a digital city such as the one of Trikala (Greece), is extremely difficult to sustain and to succeed in its targets. Today, the viability of this digital city is totally based on funds allocated by the municipality, while almost all of the similar to Trikala cases face common sustainability problems. 

In the proposed EADIC project the digital city will be concerned in the form introduced by Anthopoulos and Tsoukalas (2005). This approach is close to the Ubiquitous City (u-city) that is the recent and future form of a city. The u-city capitalizes the pervasive or ubiquitous computing (Duk Hee Lee, 2009), (Osaka ICT Industry, 2009) in order to simplify citizen life, to provide access to local information and resources from everywhere to anyone, and to attract private investments in modern cities or modern neighborhoods. 

The main purpose of this project is to define a common EA for digital cities. This delivered architecture will be based on the experiences from current and previous digital cities; it will define the gaps (real or potential) in such a project, and it will contain administrative, managerial and technological principles and standards that can guide future digital cities. Moreover, specific analysis will be performed, so that this EA will incorporate sustainability standards that will secure project success and viability. 

The project coordinator will capitalize his experience from the Digital City of Trikala, where social participation and collaboration were in the centre of the project. This particular approach has been applied in the development of the Collaborative Enterprise Architecture (Anthopoulos, 2008), which has not considered project sustainability and viability, and it has to be reviewed. The updated EA will be called “Sustainable Enterprise Architecture” (SEA) and it will focus on the size and on the use of the ICT infrastructure and services of a digital city. For the purposes of SEA’s evaluation, a common physical architecture will be designed. This physical architecture will follow the principles and standards proposed in SEA. 

Moreover, SEA will be accompanied by a sustainable business model, which will be developed under the proposed project. Digital city sustainability and viability are critical not only due to project scale: significant argument concerning the necessity, the success and the viability of digital cities has been written in  (New Millennium Research Council, 2005), where useful information of San Francisco and New Orleans wireless cities’ failures has been determined. In this context, the business model proposed by the EADIC will document all known risks and the appropriate methods for risk management that will secure future Greek and European digital cities.  

Additionally, a social network appropriate for a digital city will be designed, which will support further evaluation of the SEA. This social network will be suitable for every digital city, and it will be based on the SEA principles and standards. A tagging system will be selected for the social network, while evaluation methods will measure the contribution of this social network to the digital city (e.g. the existence and the forms of location based services). A social network is a significant challenge for a digital city, since no similar case has been observed (except to blogs and known large social networks), while it can contribute to social inclusion and participation for decision making. 

Some particular questions, to which the SEA will approach concern:

  • The challenges, the scope and the risks of a digital city.
  • The business model that will secure digital city’s sustainability and viability.
  • The scale, and the principles and standards for a social network appropriate for a digital city. 
  • The determination of the suitable tagging system for the digital city’s network, together with the tag mining procedures. 
  • Knowledge mining methods for decision making in digital cities. 
  • Statistical analysis for problem recognition in local communities etc.

References
  1. Anthopoulos, L. (2009) “Applying Enterprise Architecture for Crisis Management: A Case of Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs”. Chapter for the book “Coherency Management: Architecting the Enterprise for Alignment, Agility and Assurance”, a Book Edited by Garry Doucet, John Godge, Pallab Saha and Scott Bernard, AuthorHouse Publishing, July 2009 (ISBN: 9781438996066)
  2. Anthopoulos L., Fitsilis, P. (2009) (1) “Digital Cities: Towards Connected Citizens and Governance”. Accepted chapter for the Book “Citizens and e-Government”, on June 2009, edited by Christopher Reddick, Department of Public Administration, The University of Texas at San Antonio.
  3. Anthopoulos, L. and Fitsilis, P., (2009) (2) From online to ubiquitous city: the technical transformation of virtual communities. In the Lecture Notes of ICST (LNICST, the joint proceedings series of Springer and ICST) of the e-Democracy 2009 international conference on e-Democracy, "Next Generation Society: Technological and Legal Issues", 23 - 25 September 2009, Athens, Greece.
  4. Anthopoulos, L, (2008) Collaborative enterprise architecture for municipal environments. Chapter of the book “Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture”, a Book Edited by Dr. Pallab Saha, National University of Singapore, IDEA Group Publishing, November 2008 (ISBN: 978-1-60566-068-4).
  5. Chief Information Officer (CIO) Council, A Practical Guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture, version 1.0, February 2001. Retrieved, July 2008 from http://www.gao.gov/bestpractices/bpeaguide.pdf
  6. Duk Hee Lee. E-Government and Digital City in Korea. Retrieved July, 2009 from http://217.116.28.251/deds/260907/dhee.pdf
  7. Hyang-Sook, C., Byung-Sun, C. and Woong-Hee, P., Ubiquitous-City Business Strategies: The Case of South Korea. In: Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET 2007), IEEE (2007).
  8. Ishida, Τ., “Digital City Kyoto”. Communications of the ACM, July 2002, vol.45, No.7 (2002).
  9. Ishida, T., Aurigiri, A. and Yasuoka, M., World Digital Cities: Beyond Heterogeneity”. Retrieved April, 2005 from http://www.kid.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp.
  10. New Millennium Research Council (2005). Not In The Public Interest – The Myth of Municipal Wi-Fi Networks. Retrieved July, 2009 from http://www.broadbandcity.gr/content/modules/downloads/Not_In_The_Public_Interest_The_Myth_of_Municipal_WiFi_Networks_(New_Millenium_Research_Council).pdf
  11. Osaka ICT Industry, Ubiquitous City Osaka. Online Publication. (Retrieved from http://www.ibpcosaka.or.jp/invest/e/environment/ict/ICT2007e.pdf  on April 28th, 2009).
  12. Van Bastelaer, B., Digital Cities and transferability of results. In: 4th EDC Conference on Digital Cities, Salzburg, October 29-30, 1998, pp. 61-70 (1998).
  13. Wang, L. and Wu, H., A Framework of Integrating Digital City and Eco-city. School of Business, Hubei University, Wuhan, China. Retrieved March, 2005 from www.hku.hk/cupem/asiagis/fall03/Full_Paper/Wang_Lu.pdf  (2001).
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